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INTRODUCTORY   ESSAY.                                1$9
has become common, accompanied by all the characteristic
forms, which will be enumerated in the ?JE& section, and ilhc
dry country shrubs have quite disappears 4. With the annual
herbaceous vegetation the change is less marked, thfese dis-
tricts presenting a mixed flora, the cold and-hot seasons pro-
ducing plants of a dry climate, while during the rains more
humid types are numerous.
West- of the Jelam, wherever, the surface' is hilly, as is
usually the case, it supports a very different vegetation. Aca-
cia uiodesta, and some other species, with a spinous Celastrus,
form the greater part of the jungle. Oka vndulata, Wiazya
stricta, Dodon&a, Reptonia* (Edgeww*thia of Falconer), and
other plants of the lower hills of Afghanistan, occur occasion-
ally, and nw»ny mountain plants of the Persian ~flora, which
descend from .the hills, are here^ me* with. Several species
of Delphinium, described in the present part of our work, and
numerous Caryophyttea, Geraniacea, Cichoracefa, Cynaracea,
Labiate, Boraginea, and other genera of the Oriental flora>
might be enumerated as instances; but the flora of this dis-
trict is still very imperfectly known, no extensive collection
of its plants haying reached this country. Those which we
have seen were collected-by Jacqucmont, who explored the
Salt range; by Dr. Fleming, who has more recently visited
the same district, and-has communicated to us a complete
series of the plants which he collected; and by Major Vicary,
chiefly from the neighbourhood of Peshawer.
Griffith's private journals, Jacquemont'sc Voyage aux Indes
Orientales/ and Boyle's 'Illustrations,' containrmany in-
teresting notes regarding the Panjab flora. Mr. Edgeworth
haa.fully investigated the neighbourhood of Multan, and has
communicated many specimens to the Hookerian Herbarium.
These and our own materials give us a very complete know-
ledge of its vegetation.
17. UPPEU GANGETIC PLAIN.
Between.the Himalaya on the north and the spurs of die